Sunday, November 19, 2017

A. Lincoln Fechheimer (1876-1954), Cincinatti's Leading Jewish Architect

Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017
A. Lincoln Fechheimer (1876-1954), Cincinnati's Jewish Architect Who Designed Hebrew Union College (and much more)
by Samuel D. Gruber

I recently spent a few days at a conference on the campus of Hebrew Union College in Cincinnati. The collection of a about a dozen buildings comprises a small campus on Clifton Avenue, first laid out in 1907 and opened in 1912, close to the much larger expanse of the University of Cincinnati. Not all of the buildings are of a piece. Now included is an adjacent large Masonic Hall built in 1915 (now Mayerson Hall), and several modern buildings, but the functional and aesthetic core of HUC still consists of brick structures built in the then popular collegiate Gothic style, imported and adapted from the English college architecture of Oxford and Cambridge.  In the context of American educational architecture this was no big deal.  Countless colleges, universities,  Christian religious seminaries and even prep school all were built in this style in the late-19th and early-20th century. 

What makes HUC's campus important in "Jewish architecture,"however, is that is was the first Jewish educational campus erected in America and that is was designed by Jewish architect A. Lincoln Fechheimer. For someone used to visiting Ivy League and other elite American college campus, the architecture is familiar, but it is a shock to see the buildings adorned with Jewish stars, the Hebrew Ten Commandments, and Torah scrolls.

Fechheimer's name is not much known now, he does not appear on most lists fo Jewish architects, but he was quite accomplished in his day.  His success exemplifies the productive careers open to Jewish architects in the early decades of the 20th century. Most major American cities had a least one - and sometimes more - established and respected Jewish architect. For Jews, architecture (and the related field of civil engineering) were respectable fields that contributed to society and which also allow a good livelihood. Fechheimer belonged to the second generation of American-born Jews who trained in good American universities and often then completed their architectural training abroad, most often in in the early 1900s in Paris.

Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Herman Learning Center, one of the original buildings on campus. A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Former Administration Building.entry portal. Note Torah scrolls flanking attic story of A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Former Masonic Temple (1915) now Mayerson Hall. This building - not originally part of the HUC campus was built at just about the same time. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.
The creation of a new purpose-built Reform seminary was a project of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, which in March 1903 appointed a committee to consider moving the College, founded in 1875, to a new Cincinnati location. Eighteen acres of land was purchased near the University, facing Clifton Avenue and across from Burnet Woods.  Despite revenue from the sale of the College's previous site, raising money to pay for new site alone - not considering the cost of new buildings, was difficult.

During this long process, noted New York-based (Jewish) architect Arnold W. Brunner (1857-1925) was hired as a consulting architect to design a program and to help select architects for the specific tasks. Financier Jacob Schiff, who was a regular patron of Brunner, contributed $25,000 to the building program and this probably had a lot to do with Brunner's appointment. But besides being Jewish, Brunner had more than two decades experience designing for Jewish communal and educational institutions. He was also a well-known national architect. He was still overseeing completion of the impressive Federal Building in Cleveland, for which he had won a competition in 1901 (cornerstone laid in 1905) and since 1902 he has been one of the three architects (Daniel Burnham and John Carriere) named to the Cleveland Board of Supervision of Public Buildings and Grounds, which subsequently came to be known as the Group Plan Commission, in charge of the influential "Cleveland Plan." With this work Brunner began two decades of constant city planning work in more than a dozen cities. In 1903 he was elected president of Architectural League of New York.

Brunner had designed academic buildings for New York University's Bronx campus, and would soon begin important buildings for Columbia and Barnard Colleges.

Perhaps most important for the HUC project, Brunner had designed the new building for the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York, which as paid for by Jacob Schiff and which had opened in 1903 at 531-535 W. 123d Street. Brunner’s solution was an attractive classical style palazzo-type building which faced the street with dignity and elegance, and into which he deftly inserted a wide variety of functions.The next year (1904), Brunner was engaged to design the new School of Mines (Lewisohn Hall) paid for by another wealthy Jewish Brunner patron, Adolph Lewisohn.

Jewish Theological Seminary, 531-535 W. 123d Street, New York City, 1903. Arnold W. Brunner, architect.

 On January 14, 1907, the Executive Board of HUC heard that:
 “The Building Committee, aided by their Consulting Architect, Mr. Arnold W. Brunner of New York, after a competitive submission of plans, adopted those prepared by Mr. A. Lincoln Fechheimer, who has associated with himself Mr. Harry Hake.  These plans are now on exhibition in the hall wherein the Twentieth Council of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations will meet.” [Proceedings of the Executive Board, Hebrew Union College  (Jan. 14, 1907)].
Fechheimer was a member of a prominent Jewish Cincinnati family (see the Marcus Fechheimer House, Garfield Place). Despite being born deaf, Fechheimer achieved notoriety as a brilliant draftsman and talented designer from an early age. He attended Columbia University; and then studied at the Ecole Des Beaux-Arts in Paris from 1900-1904, where he received his receiving Diploma. He spent two years in Chicago, and then returned to Cincinnati where he formed a new firm with Harry Hake in 1906.

Fechheimer and Hake won the competition for the original group of buildings at Hebrew Union College in 1907, and the College moved onto the new campus in 1912.  Buildings from the original design continued to be erected into the 1920s.

Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Former Administration Building. A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.
Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Sisterhood Dormitory.  A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect, 1921-25. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.

Cincinnati, Ohio. Hebrew Union College. Former Freiberg Gymnasium (now Barbash Family Support Center).  A. Lincoln Fechheimer, architect. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.

I find it interesting that Brunner - himself the first successful American-born Jewish architect and an early graduate of MIT -  took an active role in starting the career of the young Fechheimer, who had only recently returned from four years study in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (1900-1904), and who, after working two years in Chicago had only started his new firm with Harry Hake in 1906. Besides this, young Fechheimer was totally deaf from birth, so was hardly a known and likely candidate. Of course, he came from a distinguished Cincinnati Jewish family, so that may have influenced the decision as much as Brunner's judgement. Still, I wonder if I advancing Fechheimer's career Brunner was not "passing forward" the early mentoring he had received from (Jewish) architect Henry Fernbach.

Cincinnati, Ohio. Former Wise Center (now Zion Temple First Pentacostal Church) on Reading Road. Fechheimer & Ihorst, architects, 1926-28. Photo: Samuel Gruber 2017.
Fechheimer (with Harry Hake and then Benjamin Ihorst) subsequently designed several important buildings in Cincinnati, including the Moderne-style Wilson Auditorium (demolished, 2013) and Beecher Hall (demolished) on the Clifton Campus of the University of Cincinnati and the (former) Wise Center Building, on Reading Road in Avondale (1926-28).  Fechheimer, Ihorst & McCoy designed the Dale Park School in Mariemont (1924-1925). Fechheimer & Ihorst designed the elegant Ault Park Pavilion (1930). 

See:

 Biographical Dictionary of Cincinnati Architects, 1788-1940]

 "Speech Unto the Speechless: The Remarkable Story of A. Lincoln Fechheimer of Cincinnati...," American Hebrew (Nov. 4, 1921).




Sunday, November 12, 2017

USA: War Memorial in Cincinnati's Walnut Hills Jewish Cemetery

Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. War Memorial in first erected in 1868 and subsequently expanded. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. Plaque on War Memorial commemorating Lieutenant Louis Reitler who was killed in battle. This plaque appears to replace an earlier one in the same location. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. Plaque on War Memorial. Left plaque lists six additional names of Civil War veterans. Right plaque commemorates those who died in World War II. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. Plaque commemorates those who died in World War II. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
USA: War Memorial in Cincinnati's Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery
by Samuel D. Gruber

The Walnut Hills Jewish Cemetery is at 3400 Montgomery Road Evanston, a neighborhood of Cincinnati, was founded  in the mid-19th-century and developed through subsequent decades as a quintessential English landscape-park type of cemetery. Consecrated in 1850, when it received its first burial, it was apparently only fully opened by members of Bene Israel and B'nai Jeshurun congregations in 1862 [n.b. am still looking for full and reliable history of the cemetery]

The cemetery contains Cincinnati's Jewish Civil War Memorial (Section 3, Lot 71, Grave 5), originally dedicated in 1868 to honor Lieutenant Louis Reitler (or Reiter), who served with the 37th Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Companies F and H. He enlisted as a Private and was ranked as a 1st Lieutenant when he was killed in battle in 1862 at the age of 20. 

Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. War Memorial in first erected in 1868 and subsequently expanded. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. War Memorial in first erected in 1868 and subsequently expanded. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
This first monument appears to be the still-extant central obelisk of what is now a more expansive war memorial, which has been expanded to honor veterans of other wars. The United Jewish Cemetery rededicated the Memorial on Memorial Day 2008.

Several bronze plaques are now affixed to the base of the obelisk and the graves of veterans, all with similar headstones, are clustered in six groups of three on one side of the obelisk. Possibly the present appearance of the memorial dates from the 2008 re-dedication. 

While there are other (later) monuments and memorials to earlier Jewish war dead elsewhere in America, such as those commemorating Revolutionary War victim Francis Salvador in Charleston, SC., and there are war memorials in Jewish cemeteries across America, this one in the Walnut Hills Cemetery is the oldest and most formal of those I have seen. Is it the first? I invite readers to write in and send pictures of examples from of towns and cities.

Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. War Memorial in first erected in 1868 and subsequently expanded. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery.  Right plaque lists six additional names of Civil War veterans. Left plaque commemorates those who died in World War I. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. Pplaque commemorates those who died in World War I. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
Cincinnati, Ohio. Walnut Hills United Jewish Cemetery. Veterans graves by war War Memorial. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber 2017
The cemetery is also the site of the grave of David Urbansky (or Orbansky), a Civil War hero who was the first Jew to be awarded a Medal of Honor. This is located separately. Urbansky's remains were moved here to be by his widow, who has moved to Cincinnati.

Friday, September 15, 2017

Lithuania: Exhibition of Mad Magazine Cartoonist Al Jaffee's Art Travels the Country

Portrait of cartoonist Al Jaffee at the beginning of an exhibition of his work, which is now at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania.
Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber, Sept. 2017


Al_Jaffes_Mad_Life_Zarasai_Lithuania_p28 (1).jpg
Al Jaffee and his family arrive in the main square of Zarasai. From Al Jaffee's Mad Life: A Biography (HarperCollins, 2010)
Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber, Sept. 2017
Lithuania: Exhibition of Mad Magazine Cartoonist Al Jaffee's Art Travels the Country
by Samuel D. Gruber

One doesn't expect to find an exhibition of work by Mad Magazine cartoonist Al Jaffee in the Regional Museum of Ukmerge, Lithuania, but there it was.  This exhibit of cartoons made by Jaffee for his 2010 biography Al Jaffee's Mad Life: ABiography (HarperCollins, 2010), by Mary-Lou Weisman, for which Jaffee provided the illustrations, has been traveling the country since it opened in Zarasai, Lithuania last year.
  
Jaffee was born Abraham Jaffee, in Savannah, Georgia, in 1921, but he spent six years of his boyhood (1927-1933) in Zarasai, Lithuania (then known as Ežerėnai) after his unhappy immigrant mother took her four small children back to her home town in Lithuania. Jaffe's early life straddled the Atlantic. For six years he lived the life of an Zarasai Jewish kid, but his father in America still sent packages filled with the American newspaper comics that Al craved. Eventually Al and his three brothers returned to America for good, but his mother stayed behind and is believed to have been murdered with the other Jews of Zarasai and nearby villages in the Krakyne Forest northeast of Degučiai in 1941. Al never returned to Lithuania. Still, his memories remained strong.

In 2013 Phil and Aldona Shapiro of the organization Remembering Litvaks, Inc, donated copies of the biography to the historical museums in Zarasai and Rokiskis and the library of the U.S. Embassy in Lithuania. From this small act developed the exhibition in 2016, when the director of the Zarasai Regional Museum asked if posters of the images in the biography pertaining to Al’s childhood years in Zarasai could be made. Remembering Litvaks, Inc., obtained the necessary copyright approvals and sponsored the project, which grew into a larger traveling exhibition. You can read more about the exhibit here:
http://www.litvaks.org/projects/al-jaffee-exposition/

I read the Jaffee biography last year, thinking to add his work to my Syracuse University course "Jewish Art: From Sinai to Superman."  Jaffee, best known as a political and satiric cartoonist for MAD Magazine since the 1950s straddles several narratives important to 20th-Century American Jewish culture and art. As an immigrant artist, he is one of a large cohort of young American Jews who found their independent voices through both commercial and  fine art. Jaffee developed his art in the world pulp magazines and comics, ultimately landing steady (but always part-time) work in satire with Mad Magazine, where among other contributions he invented and sustained the back cover "fold-in." In sixty years only one issue did not contain work by Jaffee. All this history of Jaffee's work is probably lost on Lithuanian viewers, who've probably never heard of Mad Magazine.  Unfortunately, but for some obvious reasons, the exhibit does not cover the greater part of Jaffee's career, but only life looking back. Jaffee, now age 96, is still working.

A Jaffes Mad Life_Hawks_and-Doves_190.jpg
 Al Jaffee, Hawks and Doves from Mad Magazine. Reproduced in
Al Jaffee's Mad Life: A Biography (HarperCollins, 2010)

Political satire and cartooning were old professions by definition done by outsiders, even more than much of the journalism to which political cartooning was linked. Jews, as quintessential outsiders, could work in this world. But immigrant Jews also flourished in the newer industries of mass-circulation pulp magazines, movies, comic books, radio and television. These were all new professions with no rules, and importantly, without gatekeepers. No degrees from Ivy League schools were needed, nor a profession of mainstream Christianity. 

Some Jewish cartoonists and writers like Will Eisner, Joe Shuster and Jerry Siegel, Stan Lee, Joe Kubert, Bob Kane and others gravitated to the world mass entertainment, and this gave us (super)heroes and villains. Others moved to political satire and caricature. William Gropper and other lefter artists were already adept at political cartooning before World War II, and this ultimately led in the 1950s to the work of William Gaines, Harvey Kurtzman and the Mad Magazine crew, but also Jules Feiffer, Al Hirschfeld, and Saul Steinberg.

Al_Jaffes_Mad_Life_Hamburg-Train_Sation_p4.jpg
Al Jaffee. Al and his siblings lost at the Hamburg train station after arriving in Europe from American with their mother. From Al Jaffee's Mad Life: A Biography (HarperCollins, 2010)
Al Jaffee never returned to Lithuania, so all of his memories, and the images of his life which he created of his life inter-war Lithuania are unaffected by the destruction of the Holocaust or the imposition of Soviet rule. In this, his images retain a childlike innocence familiar in the work of many "memory artists," who in old age reach back to childhood to re-create through pictures or words a time long gone. In this Jaffee's illustrations to his "as-told-to" biography, recall the vivid and detailed paintings of inter war Polish Opatów by Mayer Kirshenblatt, whose 2007 book They Call Me Mayer July: Painted Memories of a Jewish Childhood in Poland Before the Holocaust,  written with daughter Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett (and accompanying traveling exhibition) has received a great deal of attention in the past decade. Kirshenblatt was a self-taught artist with a remarkable memory (see short video here), who began to paint at age 73. Jaffee's work is more accomplished, but is also more self-conscious, and not surprising given his professional career, his scenes have more explicit humor. The two retrospective books go well together.

Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber Sept. 2017
When the exhibition first opened in Zarasai on September 2, 2016, the day of European Jewish Culture, Jaffee’s biographer, Mary-Lou Weisman, posted an open letter to the people of Zarasai which stated, “To me, the existence of this exhibition is a double-triumph – the re-creation by Al Jaffee through art and memory, of the rural Lithuanian town that has since been forever changed by war; and the determination of the museum director and the people of modern Zarasai and their leaders to embrace their history. In Zarasai, the book, at last, has found its true home.”  The exhibit has also been shown in Molėtai by the Molėtai Regional Museum.

Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber Sept. 2017
Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber Sept. 2017
Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber Sept. 2017
Al Jaffee exhibition at the Ukmerge Regional Museum in Ukmerge, Lithuania. Photo: Samuel D. Gruber Sept. 2017
In 2015 the Ukmerge regional Museum presented an  exhibition of photographs on Pope Francis’s trip to Israel. There is also an exhibition about the Jewish history of Ukmerge at the museum, and several commemorative plaques commemorating notable Jews have been installed in the town.  There is a growing recognition of the vibrant Jewish history of the pre-Holocaust town, but still general amnesia or at least a reluctance to address the specific circumstances of the murder of Ukmerge's Jews in 1941.

Ukmerge, Lithuania. Part of the Jewish history exhibit at  the Ukmerge Regional Museum. Photo: Samuel Gruber Sept. 2017
Ukmerge, Lithuania. Commemorative plaques affixed to the outside wall of the former Great Synagogue, now a sports center. Photo: Samuel Gruber Sept. 2017
The museum exhibit devotes only one line to the deaths of the over 6,000 Jewish residents, and makes no mention of the German occupation and the Lithuanian participation in the mass murder.  It is stated only that "after nearly half a millennium of peaceful coexistence"  there were "6334 Jewish people killed." The history of this and other killings are well known and described by many sources, but specificity about brutal and often enthusiastic Lithuanian participation is still often a taboo subject.  In some places this is changing, but Lithuania still has to have its period of deep self-reflection as began in Germany in the 1970s and to some extent in Poland, too, in the 1990s. 

The Ukmerge Museum is in the process of moving to a different building. Presumably  exhibitions will be changed. Given a general receptivity among many in Ukmerge to include the Jewish past as a real element in the town's past, this may be an occasion - the occasion - for a more honest discussion. Who knows, maybe the childlike innocence of some of Al Jaffee's illustrations of life in pre-War Zarasai will stimulate more discussion of Jewish life in Ukmerge, and exactly what happened to all those Jewish residents, who made up almost 40% of the town?

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Happy Birthday Larry Rivers (1923-2002)!

 
Larry Rivers. The Burial, 1951, oil on canvas, 1951. Fort Wayne Museum of Art.

Larry Rivers. Larry Rivers as Felix Nussbum, 1997 pastel & pencil, 25x27in. Photo: Jewish Artists and  the Bible, p135.

Happy Birthday Larry Rivers (1923-2002)!

Larry Rivers was born as Yitzroch Loiza Grossberg on August 17, 1923, to Samuel and Sonya Grossberg, Jewish immigrants from the Ukraine who lived in the Bronx. He changed his name when he began performing as musician in 1940. He was successful jazz saxophonist, playing regularly in New York from 1940-1945.

In 1945 Rivers started painting and subsequently studied with Han Hoffman, and then at NYU.  His early works - like The Burial (1951), are more expressive, and though he was an early practitioner of what came to be called Pop Art, unlike contemporaries Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, his work was painterly, and maintained a kind of nervous energy. Throughout his career he embraced realism - often based on photos - to represent things, places and people. In later decades he created large collage-like canvases using multiple images to tell sweeping stories, such as The History of Matzah: The Story of the Jews,' which, along with 40 preparatory drawings was exhibited at the Jewish Museum in New York in 1984. He said at the time: ''I tried to take what talent I had and bend it to displaying some aspect of Jewish culture and history. I'm trying to use the canvas as a matrix for a story.''

Larry Rivers. Bar Mitzvah Photograph Painting, 1961, Oil on canvas, 72x60in
Photo: Jewish Artists and the Bible, p115.

With the exception of some relatively early paintings that seem to derive from his own American Jewish life cycle,  most of Rivers' work does not address specifically Jewish themes. But there are more of these beginning in the 1980s, including several works addressing the Holocaust, and specifically well-known victims.

Rivers directly associated himself with the painter Felix Nussbaum in his work Larry Rivers as Felix Nussbaum (1997), where he places himself in the position and with the attributes of Nussbaum's unforgettable self-portrait of a hunted Jewish artist in hiding. In the late 1980s he painted a series of portraits of the Auschwitz survivor and writer Primo Levi, who died in 1987.  The 1980s and early 1990s was a time of great attention to the Holocaust, culminating with the opening in 1993 of the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, and many Jewish painters were drawn to Holocaust themes, and some were specifically commissioned for these works.

Larry Rivers. Primo Levi Witness, Oil on  canvas, 1988

 
Larry Rivers. History of Matzah, 1984

Rivers was a multi-talented artist. Besides music and painting, he made sculpture and films.

For more on Larry Rivers as a Jewish artist see Samantha Baskind, Jewish Artists and the Bible in Twentieth-Century America (Penn State Universality Press, 2014).